Analyzing Average Scores: Morality and Ethical Story Creation Tests Pre and Post Backward Design with T-Test


  • Asst. Prof. Suphanwadee Waiyaroop, Muhammad Shahid Khan


Moral Tales, Backward design Learning Management, Pre-service teachers, Early Childhood Education


Fairy tales play a vital role in fostering early childhood development. Learning to create fairy tales,
especially fairy tales that can promote morality and ethics for early childhood children, will result in
appropriate and sustainable social development for children. As well as resulting in pre-service teachers
learning meaningfully and valuablely. Able to innovate on their own individual potential with a
backward design learning model that encourages pre-service teachers and educators to know and
understand common goals. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of using a backward design
learning approach to teach moral-ethical storytelling to pre-service teachers in early childhood
education. Specifically, it seeks to compare the story-building skills of such pre-service teachers before
and after the application of the aforementioned approach. The study sample comprises 36 second-year
early childhood education students from the 2021 academic year. The literature and tales used in the
study were selected via cluster random sampling. The research instruments employed included
backward design learning plans and a morality-ethical storytelling test, with data analyzed through
average and standard deviation statistics. The findings indicate that the backward design learning
approach can develop the creation of moral and ethical tales for pre-service teacher s and the students
had higher ethical storytelling skills after the backward design learning management than before the
experiment in all aspects. Develop learning skills that can be applied in real life And see the results that
can be used in the future, along with cultivating early childhood children to grow up to be good citizens
of society with quality.




How to Cite

Asst. Prof. Suphanwadee Waiyaroop, Muhammad Shahid Khan. (2023). Analyzing Average Scores: Morality and Ethical Story Creation Tests Pre and Post Backward Design with T-Test. Utilitas Mathematica, 120, 573–586. Retrieved from

Citation Check